From the detailed research recommendations in each section, the following are highlighted as key:
- The map of Roman Scotland is still only partly complete for any period. Means of targeting survey in areas generally unresponsive to aerial photography need to be sought. This could be achieved by focused aerial survey, perhaps including the use of multi-spectral imaging; by targeted field-walking and field survey; by predictive modelling of likely locations or by the pursuit of patterns and associations in the distribution of stray finds from metal-detecting or other sources.
- A key priority for establishing the date of the early invasion is dendrochronological dating whenever suitable samples can be identified. Key aspects of the sequence at some sites are highly contentious and require resolution, notably the late Antonine/Severan occupation at Cramond and Carpow.
- Synthesis of ongoing low-intensity developer-funded work on the Antonine Wall is key to maximising our understanding of this major monument.
- An understanding of the fortress of Inchtuthil in its wider landscape would be of broad and substantial benefit to international scholars of Roman frontiers.
- Knowledge of the road network is very poor. Critical appraisal and targeted fieldwork are needed to clarify it.
- Evidence of late-Roman activity requires synthesis.
- Any chance to investigate the maritime context, especially in terms of wrecks or water-front structures, should be seized.