neolithic

1. Research and the Neolithic in Scotland (1840-2007)

This account of the progress of archaeological research into the Neolithic (New Stone Age) in Scotland will be divided into four chronological stages.  It will reflect the national, indeed the international stage, upon which this research has taken place over a century and a half.

The Stages nominated are:

Stage 1: The Development of an Idea

Stage 2: The advent of Childe – the Idea Rebuilt

Stage 3: The Attainment of Expertise

Stage 4: The Attainment of Critical Mass

Neolithic Bibliography

Jump to: A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|R|S|T|V|W|Z|

A

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Abercromby, J A 1904 'Proposed Chronological Arrangement of the Drinking-Cup or Beaker Class of Fictilia in Britain'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 38, 323-410

Abercromby, J 1905 'The Ornament of the Beaker Class of Pottery'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 39, 326-44

Abercromby, J 1907 'The Relative Chronology of some Cinerary Urn Types of Great Britain and Ireland'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 41, 185-274

Addyman, T., Donnelly, M and Wilson, T 2004 ‘Station Brae, Dreghorn’, Discovery Excav Scot, 87–8.

Alexander, D 2000 Excavation of Neolithic pits, later prehistoric structures and a Roman temporary camp along the line of A96 Kintore and Blackburn Bypass, Aberdeenshire. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 130, 11–75

Andrews, M V., Beck, R B., Birks, H J B and Gilbertson, D D 1987 ‘The past and present vegetation of Oronsay and Colonsay’, in Mellars, P (ed) Excavations on Oronsay. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, 52-77.

Andrews, M V., Gilbertson, D D and Kent, M 1987 ‘Storm frequencies along the Mesolithic coastline’, in Mellars, P (ed) Excavations on Oronsay. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, 108-114.

Angell, I O 1977 ‘Are Stone Circles, Circles' Science and Archaeology 19, 16-19       

Armit, I 2003 ‘The Drowners: permanence and transience in the Hebridean Neolithic’, in Armit, I et al. (eds) Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford, 93-100. 

Armit, I and Finlayson, B 1992 Hunter-gatherers transformed: the transition to agriculture in northern and western Europe. Antiquity 66, 664–76

Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E and Simpson, D (eds) 2003 Neolithic settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford.

Ascough, P L., Cook, G T., Dugmore, A J and Scott E M 2007 ‘The North Atlantic marine reservoir effect in the Early Holocene: Implications for defining and understanding MRE values’.  Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 259(1), 438-447.

Ashmore, P 1996 Neolithic and Bronze Age Scotland. Batsford / Historic Scotland: Edinburgh.

Ashmore, P 1997 ‘Radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites in Argyll and Arran’, in Ritchie, G (ed) The archaeology of Argyll, Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, 239-83.

Ashmore, P 2007  ‘Radiocarbon dates from the Pict’s Knowe, Holywood and Holm’, in Thomas, J (ed)  2007 ‘Place and Memory: Excavations at the Pict’s Knowe, Holywood, and Holm Farm, Dumfries and Galloway, 1994-8’. Oxbow Books: Oxford, 248-59.

Ashmore, P J., Cook, G T and Harkness, D D 2000 A radiocarbon database for Scottish archaeological samples. Radiocarbon 42(1), 41–8.

Atkinson, J 2002 ‘Excavation at a Mesolithic and Neolithic occupation site at Chapelfield, Cowie, Stirling’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 132, 123–92.

Atkinson, R J C 1950 Four new ‘henge’ monuments in Scotland and Northumberland. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 84 (1949–50), 57–66.

Austin, P 2000 ‘The emperor’s new garden: woodland, trees and people in the Neolithic of southern Britain’, in Fairbairn, A S (ed) Plants in Neolithic               Britain and Beyond. Oxbow: Oxford, 63-78.

B

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Bailey, J F et al. 1996 ‘Ancient DNA suggests a recent expansion of European cattle from a wild progenitor species’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B263, 1467-1473.

Baillie, M G L 1995 ‘Dendrochronology and past environmental change’, Proceedings of the British Academy 77, 5-23.

Bailloud, G 1975 ‘Les céramiques ‘cannelées’ du Néolithique morbihannais’. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 72, 343–67

Bakels, C C 1997 ‘The beginnings of manuring in western Europe’, Antiquity 71, 442-445.

Balasse, M., Tresset, A and Ambrose, S H 2006 ‘Stable isotope evidence (?13C, ?18O) for winter feeding on seaweed by Neolithic sheep of Scotland’, Journal of Zoology 270, 170–176.

Balasse, M and Tresset, A 2009 'A key to the adaptation of Neolithic husbandry in the Orkneys: contribution of seaweed to the sheep diet at the Holm of Papa Westray revealed through stable isotope analysis of teeth’, in Ritchie, A On the fringe of Neolithic Europe. Excavation of a chambered cairn on the Holm of Papa Westray, Orkney. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh, 74-82.

Ballin, T B 2009 Archaeological Pitchstone in Northern Britain: Characterization and Interpretation of an Important Prehistoric Source. British Archaeological Reports, British Series 476 Archaeopress: Oxford

Ballin, T B 2011 Overhowden and Airhouse, Scottish Borders: Characterization and Interpretation of Two Spectacular Lithic Assemblages from sites near the Overhowden henge. British Archaeological Reports, British Series 539 Archaeopress: Oxford

Barber, J (ed) 1997 The Archaeological investigation of a prehistoric landscape: excavations on Arran 1978-81, Scottish Trust for Archaeological Research: Edinburgh.

Barbarena, R and Borrero, L A 2005 ‘Stable isotopes and faunal bones. Comments on Milner et al. 2004’, Antiquity 79, 191-195.

Barcham, R C 1981 'A lost radiocarbon date for Shetland', Proc Soc Antiq Scot 110, 503-4.

Barclay, A and Bayliss, A 1999 Cursus monuments and the radiocarbon problem in Barclay, A and Harding, J (eds) Pathways and ceremonies: the cursus monuments of Britain and Ireland, Oxbow: Oxford, 11–29.

Barclay, G J 1983 ‘Sites of the third millennium BC to the first millennium AD at North Mains, Srathallan, Perthshire’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 113, 122–281.

Barclay, G J 1996 ‘Neolithic buildings in Scotland’, in Darvill, T and Thomas, J (eds) 1996 Neolithic houses in Northwest Europe and beyond (Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 1) Oxbow: Oxford, 61–76.

Barclay, G J 1999a Cairnpapple revisited: 1948–1998, Proc Prehist Soc 65, 17–46

Barclay, G J 1999b ‘A hidden landscape: the Neolithic of Tayside’, in Harding, A F (ed) Experiment and design: Archaeological studies in honour of John Coles,  Oxbow: Oxford, 20 – 9.

Barclay, G J 2000 ’Between Orkney and Wessex: the search for the regional Neolithics of Britain, in Ritchie, A (ed) Neolithic Orkney in its European Context, McDonald Institute, University of Cambridge: Cambridge, 275–85

Barclay, G J 2001 ’Neolithic enclosures in Scotland’, in Darvill, T and Thomas, J (eds) Neolithic enclosures in Atlantic Northwest Europe. Oxbow: Oxford.

Barclay, G J 2001 ‘Metropolitan’ and ‘Parochial’ / ‘Core’ and ‘Periphery’: a historiography of the Neolithic of Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 67, 1–18.

Barclay, G J 2003 ‘Neolithic settlement in the lowlands of Scotland: a preliminary survey’ in Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E and Simpson, D (eds) 2003 Neolithic settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford, 71–83.

Barclay, G J 2005 ‘The ‘henge’ and ‘hengiform’ in Scotland’, in Cummings, V and Pannett, A (eds) Set in stone: new approaches to Neolithic monuments in Scotland, Oxbow: Oxford, 81-95.

Barclay, G J and Maxwell, G S 1991 Excavation of a long mortuary enclosure within the Roman legionary fortress at Inchtuthil, Perthshire. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 121, 27–44

Barclay, G J and Maxwell, G S 1998 The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour: Monuments in the Neolithic of Tayside. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh

Barclay, G J and Russell-White, C J (eds) 1993 Excavations in the ceremonial complex of the fourth to second millennium BC at Balfarg/Balbirnie, Glenrothes, Fife. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 123, 43–210

Barclay, G J., Carter, S P., Dalland, M M., Hastie, M., Holden, T., MacSween, A and Wickham-Jones, C R 2001 ‘A possible Neolithic settlement at Kinbeachie, Black Isle, Highland’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 131, 57–85.

Barclay, G J., Brophy, K  and MacGregor, G 2002 ‘Claish, Stirling: an early Neolithic structure in its context’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 132, 65–137.

Barrett, J H., Nicholson, R A and Cerón-Carrasco, R 1999 ‘Archaeo-ichthyological evidence for long-term socioeconomic trends in northern Scotland: 3500 BC to AD 1500’, Journal of Archaeological Science 26, 353–88.

Barry, G 1805 The History of the Orkney Islands

Bayliss, A., Bronk Ramsey, C et al. 2007 ‘Bradshaw and Bayes: Towards a Timetable for the Neolithic'. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17 (Supplement S1), 1-28.

Bayliss, A., Whittle, A et al. 2008 ‘Timing, tempo and temporalities in the early Neolithic of southern Britain’, in Fokkens, H., Coles, B J., Van Gijn, A L et al. (eds) 2008 Between foraging and farming: an extended broad spectrum of papers presented to Leendert Louwe Kooijmans, Annalecta Praesitorica Leidensia 40, 25-42.

Behre, K E 2005 ‘The reduction of the Neolithic living space in NW Germany by climatic factors: sea-level rise and large-scale bog formation’, in Gronenborm, D (ed) Climate Variability and Culture Change in Neolithic Societies of central Europe, 6700-2200 cal BC. Verlag des Römisch Germanischen Zentralmuseums: Mainz, 209-220 (English summary).

Behre, K E 2007 ‘Evidence for Mesolithic agriculture in and around central Europe?’ Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 16, 203-219.

Beckensall, S 2001 Prehistoric Rock Art in Northumberland. Tempus: Stroud.

Bennett, K D 1989 ‘A provisional map of forest types for the British Isles 5000 years ago’, Journal of Quaternary Science 4, 141-144.

Berglund, B E 2003 ‘Human impact and climate changes – synchronous events and a causal link’, Quaternary International 105, 7-12.

Birks, H J B and Williams, W W 1983 ‘Late-Quaternary vegetational history of the Inner Hebrides’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 83B, 269-282.

Bishop, R., Church, M J., Rowley-Conwy, P A 2009 'Cereals, fruits and nuts in the Scottish Neolithic', Proc Soc Antiq Scot 139, 47-103

Bjorck, S and Clemmensen, L B 2004 ‘Aeolian sediment in raised bog deposits, Halland, SW Sweden: a new proxy record of Holocene winter storminess variation in southern Scandinavia?’, The Holocene 14, 677-688.

Blackford, J J and Innes, J B 2006 ‘Linking current environments and processes to fungal spore assemblages: surface NPM data from woodland environments’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 141, 179-187.

Blaauw, M., van Geel, B and van der Plicht, J 2004 ‘Solar forcing of climatic change during the mid-Holocene: indications from raised bogs in The Netherlands’, The Holocene 14, 35-44.

Bogaard, A 2002 ‘Questioning the relevance of shifting cultivation to Neolithic farming in the loess belt of Europe: evidence from the Hambach Forest experiment’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 11, 155-168.

Bogaard, A 2004 Neolithic Farming in Central Europe. Routledge: London.

Bogaard, A., Heaton, T., Poulton, P and Merbach, I 2007 ‘The impact of manuring on nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals: archaeological implications for reconstruction of diet and crop management practices’, Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 335–43.

Bogaard, A and Jones, G 2007 ‘Neolithic farming in Britain and central Europe: contrast or continuity?’ in Whittle, A and Cummings, V (eds) Going over: the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in north-west Europe. Oxford University Press for The British Academy: Oxford, 357-375.

Bogucki, P 1998 ‘Holocene climatic variability and early agriculture in temperate Europe: the case of northern Poland’, in Zvelebil, M., Doman'sla, L and Dennell, R (eds) Harvesting the Sea, Farming the Forest. The Emergence of Neolithic Societies in the Baltic Region. Sheffield Academic Press: Sheffield, 77-85.

Bohncke, S 1988 ‘Vegetation and habitation history of the Callanish area, Isle of Lewis, Scotland’, in Birks, H H et al. (eds) The Cultural Landscape Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 445-462.

Bollongino, R., Edwards, C J., Burger, J., Alt, K W and Bradley, D G 2005 ‘Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA’, Biological Letters [online] 1-5. 

Bond, G C et al. 1997 ‘A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates’, Science 278, 1257-1266.

Bond, G C et al. 2001 ‘Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene’, Science 294, 2130-2136.

Bonsall, C., Macklin, M G., Anderson, D E and Payton, R W 2002 ‘Climate change and the adoption of agriculture in north-west Europe’, European Journal of Archaeology 5, 9-23.

Boyd, W E 1988 ‘Cereals in Scottish Antiquity’, Circaea 5, 101–10.

Bradley, R 1997 Rock art and the prehistory of Atlantic Europe. Routledge: London.

Bradley, R 2000 The Good Stones. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh

Bradley, R 2003 ‘Neolithic expectations’ in Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E and Simpson, D (eds) 2003 Neolithic settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford, 218–22.

Bradley, R 2005 The Moon and the Bonfire. An Investigation of Three Stone Circles in North-east Scotland. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh

Bradley, R 2007 The prehistory of Britain and Ireland, Routledge: London

Bradley, R 2011 Stages and Screens. An Investigation of Four Henge Monuments in Northern and North-Eastern Scotland. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh

Bradley, R., Harding, J and Mathews, M 1993 ‘The siting of prehistoric rock art in Galloway, south-west Scotland’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59 (1993), 269-283.

Bradley, R and Sheridan, J A 2005 'Croft Moraig and the chronology of stone circles' Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71, 269–81.

Brinch Petersen, E and Meiklejohn, C 2009 ‘Late Mesolithic or Early Neolithic Burials? Examining the 'Tauber line'’. in Finlay, N., McCartan, S., Milner, N and Wickham-Jones, C (eds)2009 From Bann Flakes to Bushmills: Papers in Honour of Professor Peter Woodman, Oxbow Books and The Prehistoric Society: Oxford, 165-174.

Broecker, W S 2000 ‘Was a change in thermohaline circulation responsible for the Little Ice Age?’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, 1339-1442.

Brophy, K 1998 ‘The cursus monuments and bank barrows of Tayside and Fife’, in Barclay, G J and Maxwell, G S The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour: Monuments in the Neolithic of Tayside,. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh, 92–108

Brophy, K 1999 ‘The cursus monuments of Scotland’ in Barclay, A and Harding, J (eds) Pathways and ceremonies: the cursus monuments of Britain and Ireland, 119–9.

Brophy, K 2006 ‘Rethinking Scotland’s Neolithic: combining circumstance with context’. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 126, 7–46.

Brophy, K 2007 ‘From big houses to cult houses: early Neolithic timber halls in Scotland’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73, 75–96.

Brophy, K  2007a ‘The cursus monuments of south-west Scotland’, in Thomas, J (ed)  ‘Place and Memory: Excavations at the Pict’s Knowe, Holywood, and Holm Farm, Dumfries and Galloway, 1994-8’. Oxbow Books: Oxford, 158-65.

Brophy, K (in prep) ‘Houses, halls and occupation in Britain and Ireland’, in Fowler, C., Harding, J and Hofmann, D (eds) Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe.

Brophy, K (forthcoming) Reading between the lines: the Neolithic cursus monuments of Scotland. Amberley: Stroud

Brophy, K and Barclay, G J 2004 ‘A rectilinear timber structure and post-ring at Carsie Mains, Meikleour, Perthshire’, Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal, 10, 1–22

Brophy, K and Noble, G 2011 ‘Within and beyond pits: deposition in lowland Neolithic Scotland’, in  Anderson-Whymark, H and Thomas, J (eds) Regional perspectives on Neolithic pit deposition. Beyond the mundane, Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 12, Oxbow: Oxford,  63-76.

Brophy, K and Noble, G (forthcoming) Henging, mounding and blocking: the Forteviot henge group, in Gibson, A (ed) Henges: time for a change. BAR: Oxford

Brothwell, D 1971 Palaeodemography and earlier British populations. World Archaeology 4, 75-87.

Brown, A D 2007 ‘Dating the onset of cereal cultivation in Britain and Ireland: the evidence from charred cereal grains’, Antiquity 81, 1042-1052.

Brown, A G 1997 ‘Clearances and clearings: deforestation in mesolithic/neolithic Britain’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 16, 133-146.

Brown, A G 2000 ‘Floodplain vegetation history: clearings as potential ritual spaces?’ in Fairbairn, A S (ed) Plants in Neolithic Britain and Beyond. Oxbow: Oxford, 49-62.

Brown, A G and Keough, M 1992 ‘Palaeochannels, palaeoland-surfaces and the three-dimensional reconstruction of floodplain environmental change’, in Carling, P A and Petts, G E (eds) Lowland Floodplains: Geomorphological Perspectives. Wiley and Sons: Chichester, 185-202.

Bryce, T H 1902 ‘On the cairns of Arran’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 37, 36-67.

Buckland, P C and Edwards, K J 1984 ‘The longevity of pastoral episodes of clearance activity in pollen diagrams: the role of post-occupation grazing’, Journal of Biogeography 11, 243-249.

Bunting, M J 1994 ‘Vegetation history from Orkney, Scotland; pollen records from two small basins in West Mainland’, New Phytologist 128, 771-792.

Bunting, M J 1996 ‘The development of heathland in Orkney, Scotland: pollen records from Loch of Knitchen (Rousay) and Loch of Torness (Hoy)’, The Holocene 6, 193-212.

Bunting, M J and Middleton, R 2005’ Modelling pollen dispersal and deposition using HUMPOL software: simulating wind roses and irregular lakes’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 134, 185-196.

Burgess, C 1976 Meldon Bridge: A Neolithic defended promontory complex near Peebles in  Burgess, C and Miket, R (eds) Settlement and Economy in the Third and Second Millennia BC, British Archaeological Reports, British Series 33: Oxford, 151–79

Burl, H A W 1976a The Stone Circles of the British Isles, Yale University Press: Yale.

Burl, A 1976b ‘Intimations of numeracy in the Neolithic and Bronze Age societies of the British Isles' Arch. Journ. 133, 9-32

Burl, A 1981 ‘Holes in the Argument' Archaeoastronomy 4(4), 19-21

Burl, A 1984 ‘Report on the excavation of a Neolithic mound at Boghead, Speymouth Forest, Fochabers, Moray, 1972 and 1974’,Proc Soc Antiq Scot 114, 35–73.

Burl, A 1991 ‘Megalithic Myth or Man the Mover’ Antiquity 65, 297-8   

Burl, A 1995 A Guide to the Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany, Yale University Press: New Haven

Burl, A 2006 A Brief History of Stonehenge, Robinson: London   

C

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Calder, C S T 1950 ‘Report on the excavation of a Neolithic temple at Stanydale in the Parish of Sandsting, Shetland’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 84, 185–205.

Calder, C S T 1952 'Report on the excavation of a neolithic temple at Stanydale in the Parish of Sandsting, Shetland', Proc Soc Antiq Scot 84, 185-205.

Calder, C S T 1956 ‘Report on the discovery of numerous house-sites in Shetland’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 89, 340-97.

Calder, C S T 1964 ‘Cairns, Neolithic Houses and Burnt Mounds in Shetland’ Proc Soc Antiq Scot 96, 37-86.

Callander, J G 1929 'Scottish Neolithic Pottery'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 63, 29-98

Cameron, K 2002 ‘The excavation of Neolithic pits and Iron Age souterrains at Dubton Farm, Brechin, Angus’ Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal 8, 19–76

Card, N 2010 Neolithic temples of the northern Isles. Stunning new discoveries in Orkney. Current Archaeology 241, 12–19.

Carter, S 1998 ‘Palaeopedology’, in McCullagh, R P J and Tipping, R (eds) The Lairg Project 1988-1996 The Evolution of an Archaeological Landscape in Northern Scotland. STAR: Edinburgh, 150-161.

Caseldine, C J., Thompson, G., Langdon, P and Hendon, D 2005 ‘Evidence for an extreme climatic event on Achill Island, Co. Mayo, Ireland around 5200-5100 cal. yr BP’, Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 169-178.

Caseldine, C J and Fyfe, R M 2006 A modelling approach to locating and characterising elm decline/landnam clearances. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 632-644.

Caseldine, C J., Fyfe, R M., Langdon, C T and Thompson, G 2007 ‘Simulating the nature of vegetation communities at the opening of the Neolithic on Achill Island, Co. Mayo, Ireland – the potential role of models of pollen dispersal and deposition’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 144, 135-144. 

Caseldine, C J., Fyfe, R M and Hjelle, K 2008 ‘Pollen modelling, palaeoecology and archaeology: virtualisation and/or modelling of the past?’ Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17, 543-549.

Cassen, S 2009 Autour de la Table. Laboratoire du recherches archéologiques, CNRS, Université de Nantes: Nantes.

Cassen, S., Lanos, P., Dufresne, P., Oberlin, C., Delque-Kolic and Le Goffic, M 2009 ‘Datations sur site (Table des Marchands, alignement du Grand Menhir, Er Grah) et modélisation chronologique du Néolithique morbihannais’, in Cassen, S (ed), Autour de la Table. Laboratoire du recherches archéologiques, CNRS, Université de Nantes : Nantes, 737–68.

Chamberlain, A and Witkin, A 2003 ‘Early Neolithic diets: evidence from pathology and dental wear’, in Parker Pearson, M (ed) Food, Culture and Identity in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, British Archaeological Reports International Series 1117: Oxford, 53–8,

Charman, D J 1992 ‘Blanket mire formation at the Cross Lochs, Sutherland, northern Scotland’, Boreas 21, 53-72.

Cheddadi, R et al. 1997 ‘The climate of Europe 6000 years ago’, Climate Dynamics 13, 1-9.

Chesterman, J T 1979 ‘Investigation of the human bone from Quanterness’, in Renfrew, C (ed) Investigations in Orkney Society of Antiquaries of London (Research Report 38): London, 97–109.

Childe, V G 1931 Skara Brae: a Pictish village in Orkney. Kegan Paul: London.

Childe, V G and Grant, W 1939 ‘A Stone-Age settlement at the Braes of Rinyo, Rousay, Orkney (First Report)’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 73, 6–31.

Clark, J G D 1932 Discoidal polished flint knives – their typology and distribution. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia 6 (1929–32), 41–54

Clark, S H E and Edwards, K J 2004 ‘Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline;, Journal of Quaternary Science 19, 525-528.

Clarke, A 1989 ‘The Skaill knife as a butchering tool’, Lithics 10, 16-27.

Clarke, A 2006 Stone Tools and the Prehistory of the Northern Isles British Archaeological Report 406: Oxford.

Clarke, A 2008 Coarse stone reports for GUARD sites 2465 and 2531.

Clarke, D L 1968 Analytical Archaeology. Methuen: London

Clarke, D V 1976 The Neolithic village at Skara Brae, Orkney: 1972–73 excavations, an interim report, HMSO: Edinburgh.

Clarke, D V 2003 ‘Once upon a time Skara Brae was unique’, in Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E and Simpson, D (eds) 2003 Neolithic settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford, 84- 92.

Clarke, D V 2004 The construction of narratives for Neolithic Scotland, in  Shepherd, I A G and Barclay, G J (eds) Scotland in Ancient Europe Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh,  45–53.

Clarke, D V and Sharples, N 1985 ‘Settlement and subsistence in the third millennium BC’ in Renfrew, C (ed) The Prehistory of Orkney, Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, 286–305.

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Clough, T H M and Cummins, W A 1988 Stone Axe Studies, Volume 2. Council for British Archaeology: London

Clouston, R S 1885 'Notice of the Excavation of a Chambered Cairn of the Stone Age, at Unstan, in the Loch of Stennis, Orkney'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 19, 341-51

Coles, J M and Simpson, D D A 1965 The excavation of a Neolithic round barrow at Pitnacree, Perthshire, Scotland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 21, 34–57.

Collard, M, Edinborough, K, Shennan, S and Thomas, M G 2010 ‘Radiocarbon evidence indicates that migrants introduced farming to Britain’, Journal of Archaeological Science 37(4), 866–870.

Colledge, S., Conolly, J and Shennan, S 2005 ‘The evolution of farming from SW Asian origins to NW European limits’, European Journal of Archaeology 8, 137-156.

Cook, M 2000 ‘Excavation of Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement features at Lamb’s Nursery, Dalkeith, Midlothian’,  Proc Soc Antiq Scot 130, 93–113

Cook, M 2007 ‘Early Neolithic ritual activity, Bronze Age occupation and medieval activity at Pitlethie Road, Leuchars, Fife.’ Tayside & Fife Archaeological Journal 13, 1–23.

Cook, M and Dunbar, L 2008 Rituals, Roundhouses and Romans: Excavations at Kintore, Aberdeenshire. Volume 1. Scottish Trust for Archaeological Research: Edinburgh

Cook, M, Ellis, C and Sheridan, J A 2010 ‘Excavations at Upper Largie quarry, Argyll and Bute, Scotland: new light on the prehistoric ritual landscape of the Kilmartin Glen’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 76, 165–212

Cooney, G 2003 ‘Rooted or routed? Landscapes of Neolithic settlement in Ireland’, in Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E and Simpson, D (eds) 2003 Neolithic settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxbow: Oxford, 47–55.

Cooney, G 2007 ‘Parallel worlds or multi-stranded identities? Considering the process of 'going over' in Ireland and the Irish Sea zone’, in Whittle, A and Cummings, V (eds) Going Over: the Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, 543-566.

Cooney, G. And Mandal, S 1998 Irish Stone Axe project Monograph 1. Wordwell: Dublin

Cooney, G., Mandal, S and O’Keeffe, E 2011 ‘The Irish Stone Axe Project: reviewing progress, future prospects’, in Davis, R V and Edmonds, M (eds) Stone Axe Studies III, Oxbow Books: Oxford and Oakville, 427–441.

Copley, M S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S N., Aillaud, S., Mukherjee, A J., Straker, V., Payne, S and Evershed, R P 2005 ‘Processing of milk products in pottery vessels through British prehistory’, Antiquity 79, 895–908.

Corcoran, J X W P 1967 ‘The excavation of three chambered cairns at Loch Calder, Caithness', Proc Soc Antiq Scot 98, 1-75

Corcoran, J X W P 1969 ‘Excavation of two chambered tombs at Mid Gleniron Farm, Glenluce’, Trans Dumfriesshire Galloway Natur Hist Antiq Soc 46, 29-90.

Corcoran, J X W P 1969b ‘Excavation of two burial cairns at Mid Gleniron Farm, Glenluce, Wigtownshire’, Trans Dumf Gall Nat Hist Antiq Soc 46 (1969), 91-9.

Cormack, W F 1963a ‘Burial site at Kirkburn, Lockerbie’, Proc Soc Antiq Scot 96, 107-35.

Cormack, W F 1963b ‘Prehistoric site at Beckton, Lockerbie’, Trans Dumf Gall Nat Hist Antiq Soc 41, 111-5.

Cotton, J and Field, D (eds) 2004 Towards a New Stone Age. Aspects of the Neolithic in south east England. CBA: London

Cowan, T 1988    ‘Megalithic compound ring geometry' in Ruggles, C (ed) Records in Stone Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 378-391

Cowie, T 1988 Magic Metal: early metalworkers in the North-East. University of Aberdeen: Aberdeen

Cowie, T G 1992 ‘Neolithic pottery from Barbush Quarry, Dunblane, Perthshire, with notes on the Earlier Neolithic pottery of eastern and central Scotland’, in Sharples, N M and Sheridan, J A (eds) Vessels for the Ancestors: Essays on the Neolithic of Britain and Ireland in Honour of Audrey Henshall, Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, 272–85

Cowie, T G 1993 ‘A survey of the Neolithic pottery of eastern and central Scotland’ Proc Soc Antiq Scot 123, 13–41.

Cowie, T G 1996 ‘Torrs Warren, Luce Sands, Galloway’, Trans Dumf Gall Nat Hist Antiq Soc 71, 11-105.

Cowie, T 1988 Magic Metal: early metalworkers in the North-East. University of Aberdeen: Aberdeen.

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